Basis risk is the risk that the price of an asset will move differently than the underlying asset. This can happen when two assets are not perfectly correlated. For example, if you are long a stock and short a futures contract on the same stock, you are exposed to basis risk. If the stock goes up, but the futures contract goes down, you will lose money. Likewise, if the stock goes down and the futures contract goes up, you will also lose money.
Basis risk is often considered to be a type of market risk. It can impact both individuals and institutions involved in financial transactions. Basis risk can be managed through hedging, but it cannot be eliminated entirely.
Basis risk is the root cause of many financial losses, both big and small. For example, basis risk was a major factor in the collapse of Long-Term Capital Management, a large hedge fund that went bankrupt in 1998. In the wake of the global financial crisis of 2008, many investors lost money due to basis risk. Even small investors can be impacted by basis risk. For example, if you own a stock and buy a put option as a hedge, basis risk will come into play if the stock price falls but the price of the put option does not.
There are two types of basis risk: static and dynamic. Static basis risk exists when there is a difference between the price of an asset and the underlying asset at the time of the transaction. Dynamic basis risk exists when there is a difference between the price of an asset and the underlying asset over time.
Basis risk is important to understand because it can have a significant impact on your investment strategy. If you are not aware of basis risk, you could end up making poor investment decisions that cost you money. It is important to work with a financial advisor who can help you manage your exposure to basis risk.