Organization development (OD) is a field of research, theory, and practice that seeks to help organizations achieve greater effectiveness. It does this by increasing the organization’s ability to adapt to its environment and to improve its performance.

OD emerged from human relations studies in the 1930s, initially focusing on individual behavior and small group dynamics. These early studies were important in identifying factors that contribute to effective work behavior, such as employee motivation, communication, and leadership. In the 1950s and 1960s, OD began to focus more on organizational change, particularly how organizations can become more effective through planned interventions. This focus on organizational change led to the development of a number of different models and approaches to OD.

One of the most influential models of OD is Action Research, which was developed by Kurt Lewin. Action research is a cyclical process that involves four steps: planning, action, observation, and reflection. This model emphasizes the importance of involving employees in the change process and using data to inform decisions about what changes to make.

Another important model of OD is the Systems Theory Approach, which views organizations as complex systems made up of interacting parts. This approach emphasizes the need to understand how the different parts of an organization interact with each other in order to make effective changes.

The third major model of OD is Theories of Change, which focuses on how organizations can change over time. This model emphasizes the role of individual and group behavior in organizational change.

OD is a complex field with a variety of different models and approaches. The most effective OD interventions are those that are tailored to the specific needs of the organization and its employees.